ZigBee Binding

The ZigBee binding supports an interface to a wireless ZigBee home automation network and allows ZigBee devices from numerous manufacturers to be used without a system specific gateway.

Supported Things

Coordinators

A ZigBee Coordinator is the network controller, and is therefore the heart of the ZigBee network. It also acts as the trust centre to control security access to the network.

Coordinators need to be installed manually and the serial port (zigbee_port) and baud rate (zigbee_baud) must be set. These are set to match the configuration that the dongle is in. Should you wish to use a different baud rate than the default speed of the device (get default baud rate from the device manual) , you must change the configuration of the dongle using some other, and then configure the binding to match your change. If in doubt, you should leave the settings at their default values which should work in most cases.

If you are running on Linux, then you probably need to add the user 'openhab' to the tty group, and enable EXTRA_JAVA_OPTS for the serial port your coordinator uses (see Linux install guide). Additionally for Docker users, you will need to pass the serial port through Docker to openHAB (see Docker install guide)

demo.things:

Thing zigbee:coordinator_cc2531:stick1 "Zigbee USB Stick" [zigbee_port="/dev/ttyACM0", zigbee_baud="38400"]

Coordinator Configuration

Note that not all configuration parameters are available with all coordinators. If you are using thing configuration files, you MUST define the following configuration parameters, or the system will not work properly as random values will be used at each restart - zigbee_panid, zigbee_extendedpanid, zigbee_networkkey.

The key is defined as 16 hexadecimal values. If not defined, this will default to the well known ZigBee HA link key which is required for ZigBee HA 1.2 devices. Do not alter this key if using with a ZigBee HA 1.2 network unless you fully understand the impact.

If defined with the word INSTALLCODE: before the key, this will create a link key from an install code which may be shorter than 16 bytes.

e.g. 5A 69 67 42 65 65 41 6C 6C 69 61 6E 63 65 30 39 e.g. INSTALLCODE:00 11 22 33 44 55 66 77

Network Key (zigbee_networkkey)

The key is defined as 16 hexadecimal values. If not defined, a random key will be created.

Child Aging (zigbee_childtimeout)

ZigBee routers (and the coordinator) only have room to allow a certain number of devices to join the network via each router - once the child table in a router is full, devices will need to join via another router (assuming the child can communicate via another router). To avoid the child table becoming full of devices that no longer exist, routers will age out children that do not contact them within a specified period of time.

Once a child is removed from the child table of a router, it will be asked to rejoin if it tries to communicate with the parent again. Setting this time too large may mean that the router fills its tables with devices that no longer exist, while setting it too small can mean devices unnecessarily rejoining the network.

Note that ZigBee compliant devices should rejoin the network seamlessly, however some non-compliant devices may not rejoin which may leave them unusable without a manual rejoin.

Concentrator Type (zigbee_concentrator)

The Concentrator is used to improve routing within a ZigBee network, and is especially useful in a network where much of the traffic is sent to or from a central coordinator. If the coordinator has sufficient memory, it can store routing information, thus reducing network traffic.

If supported, the High RAM concentrator should be used.

Mesh Update Period (zigbee_meshupdateperiod)

The binding is able to search the network to get a list of what devices can communicate with other devices. This is a useful diagnostic feature as it allows users to see the links between devices, and the quality of these links. However, this can generate considerable traffic, and some battery devices may not poll their parents often enough to provide these updates, and users may consider that it is better to reduce the period, or disable this feature.

Supported Coordinators

The following coordinators are known to be supported.

Name and Link Coordinator Comment
Texas Instruments CC2531EMK CC2531 Needs extra hardware and correct firmware (might be hard to find) for flashing.
There are also cheap copies of the CC2531 Stick available on eBay, Aliexpress, etc. like this and a module to flash the firmware like this including a connector board
Also CC2530, CC2538 or CC2650 may work with the correct firmware but are not suggested
Bitron Video ZigBee USB Funkstick Ember
Cortet EM358 USB Stick Ember Use baud rate 57600 and software flow control.
Nortek Security & Control HUSBZB-1 Ember Stick contains both Z-Wave and ZigBee. Use baud rate 57600 and software flow control.
Telegesis ETRX357USB ZigBee® USB Stick Telegesis
QIVICON ZigBee-Funkstick Telegesis Only working on Linux devices
Digi XStick XBee

CC2531 Coordinator

This is the Texas Instruments ZNP stack. The thing type is coordinator_cc2531.

CC2531 - Firmware

The CC2531 USB dongle must be flashed with the correct firmware in order to work with this binding. The file can be downloaded from TI website archives (http://www.ti.com/tool/z-stack-archive) as part of the Z-STACK-HOME v.1.2.2a package. The file name is CC2531ZNP-Pro-Secure_Standard.hex and its sha256 is 3cc5dc571ef0f49e3f42c6c2ca076d6f8fef33a945c71e6f951b839ba0599d3c.

Flashing on Linux

It's possible to flash the dongle using Linux, using cc-tool (https://github.com/dashesy/cc-tool.git). The software has been tested and confirmed working on Ubuntu 16.10 and 17.04. The required dependencies can be installed with sudo apt install build-essential libusb-1.0-0-dev libboost-all-dev, and the binary compiled with ./configure && make. Do not forget to install the udev rules, as described at https://github.com/dashesy/cc-tool/blob/master/README , or the software might not be able to access the USB programmer.

The firmware can be flashed with ./cc-tool -e -w CC2531ZNP-Pro-Secure_Standard.hex -v r. Change the path to the firmware accordingly.

Flashing on Windows

For flashing the dongle using windows you need the TI Flash Programmer (version 1, not version 2) and the Cebal drivers from this TI site (available in section Software). Extract and install the TI Flash Programmer, connect the CC-Debugger trough USB, and with the dongle using the connector board. In the Windows device manager update the device driver with the Cebal drivers. Now the TI Flash Programmer should show your device. Select the firmware file, flash and verify your dongle firmware.

Ember EZSP NCP Coordinator

The Ember EZSP NCP (Network Co-Processor) supports the Silabs EM358 or MightyGecko dongles with the standard NCP firmware. The thing type is coordinator_ember.

Note that there are generally two versions of the Ember NCP firmware in use. One operates at a baud rate of 115200 with RTS/CTS flow control (i.e. hardware flow control), the other operates at a baud rate of 57600, and XON/XOFF flow control (i.e. software flow control). If you are programming your own stick (e.g. the CEL stick) then it should be advisable to use the hardware flow control version - many commercial sticks seem to use the lower speed and software flow control (e.g. Bitron and Nortek HUSBZB-1).

If the usb dongle is not recognized, it might be necessary to make the dongle's device id known to the CP240x driver by Silicon Labs:

  • Find the device id (as listed by the command lsusb). For the Bitron Funkstick that might be 10c4 8b34.
  • Unplug the device
  • Enter the following commands (replace the id 10c4 8b34 with the one listed by lsusb):
sudo -s
modprobe cp210x
echo 10c4 8b34 > /sys/bus/usb-serial/drivers/cp210x/new_id
  • Plug in the dongle. It should now be recognized properly as ttyUSBx.

Telegesis ETRX3

The thing type is coordinator_telegesis.

Digi XBee X-Stick

The thing type is coordinator_xbee. Other XBee S2C devices should also be supported.

Devices

The following devices have been tested with the binding

Device Description
Busch-Jaeger 6711 U Relay Insert
Busch-Jaeger 6715 U LED-Dimmer Insert
Busch-Jaeger 6735 Control Element (1-channel)
Busch-Jaeger 6735/01 Control Element (1-channel, battery-operated)
Busch-Jaeger 6736 Control Element (2-channel)
GE Bulbs
GE Tapt Wall Switch On/Off Switch
Hue Bulbs Color LED Bulb
Hue Dimmer Hue Dimmer Switch Remote note2
Hue Motion Sensor Motion and Luminance sensor
Innr Bulbs note1
Osram Bulbs
Osram Motion Sensor Osram Smart+ Motion Sensor
SmartThings Plug Metered Plug
SmartThings Motion Sensor CentraLite 3325-S Motion and Temperature sensor
SmartThings Contact Sensor Contact and Temperature sensor
Tradfri Bulbs
Tradfri Motion Sensor
Tradfri Outlet
Tradfri Repeater
Trust Bulbs note1
Ubisys modules D1 Dimmer, S1/S2 Switch modules
Xiaomi Aqara Door and Window Sensor
Xiaomi Aqara Temperature and Humidity Sensor
Xiaomi Aqara Human Motion Sensor
Xiaomi Aqara Wireless Mini Switch
Xiaomi Aqara Wireless Remote Switch Double Rocker variant
Shenzhen Ksentry Electronics On Off Controller Relay

Note 1: Some bulbs may not work with the Telegesis dongle.

Note 2: The Hue Dimmer can be integrated but needs additional rule-configuration to work properly. See below for example.

Discovery

Once the binding is installed, and an adapter is added, it automatically reads all devices that are set up on the ZigBee controller and puts them in the Inbox. When the binding is put into discovery mode via the user interface, the network will have join enabled for 60 seconds.

The binding will store the list of devices that have joined the network locally between restarts to allow them to be found again later. A ZigBee coordinator does not store a list of known devices, so rediscovery of devices following a restart may not be seemless if the dongle is moved to another system.

When a ZigBee device restarts (e.g. a bulb is powered on), it will send an announcement to advise the coordinator that it is on the network and this will allow the binding to rediscover devices that have become lost. Battery devices often have a button that may also perform this function.

Install Codes

Note: Currently only Ember coordinators support Zigbee 3, it does not look like the Telegesis coordinators will receive an update to support it.

ZigBee 3 requires that devices use an install code to securely join the network. This must be added to the binding before the discovery starts. Install codes should be printed on the box the device came in, or possibly on the device itself. Note that there is no standard format for how these codes may be displayed on the device or its packaging. You may need to use a QR reader to read the code - again these are not standard in their format, although you should be able to find the address and install code in the displayed text.

The install code must be entered into the coordinator settings before starting the discovery process. The format is IEEE Address:Install Code in the following format -:

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA:CCCC-CCCC-CCCC-CCCC-CCCC-CCCC-CCCC-CCCC-DDDD

ZigBee 3 requires the install code to be 16 bytes long (8 blocks of characters) but some older systems using this method may use less bytes, but it should still be formatted as 2, 4, or 8 groups of 4 values. Note that the last four characters in the install code are the checksum and may be provided separately.

Leave

When a thing is deleted, the binding will attempt to remove the device from the network by sending the leave command on the network.

Thing Configuration

The binding will attempt to automatically detect new devices, giving them a type based on the information they report, and will read their supported clusters to define the supported channels.

Thing Types

Currently all ZigBee things have the same thing type of zigbee_device.

Channel Types

A set of channels will be created depending on what clusters and endpoints a device supports. Channels are loosely linked to clusters in that for the majority of channels, a single cluster is used. However, some channels may utilise more than one cluster to provide the required functionality.

The following channels are supported -:

Channel UID ZigBee Cluster Type Description
battery-level POWER_CONFIGURATION (0x0001) Number
battery_voltage POWER_CONFIGURATION (0x0001) Number:ElectricPotential
color_color COLOR_CONTROL (0x0300) Color
color_temperature COLOR_CONTROL (0x0300) Dimmer
electrical_activepower ELECTRICAL_MEASUREMENT (0x0B04) Number:Power
electrical_rmscurrent ELECTRICAL_MEASUREMENT (0x0B04) Number:ElectricCurrent
electrical_rmsvoltage ELECTRICAL_MEASUREMENT (0x0B04) Number:ElectricPotential
ias_codetector IAS_ZONE (0x0500) Switch
ias_contactportal1 IAS_ZONE (0x0500) Switch
ias_fire IAS_ZONE (0x0500) Switch
ias_motionintrusion IAS_ZONE (0x0500) Switch
ias_motionpresence IAS_ZONE (0x0500) Switch
ias_standard_system IAS_ZONE (0x0500) Switch
ias_water IAS_ZONE (0x0500) Switch
ias_movement IAS_ZONE (0x0500) Switch
ias_vibration IAS_ZONE (0x0500) Switch
ias_tamper IAS_ZONE (0x0500) Switch
measurement_illuminance ILLUMINANCE_MEASUREMENT (0x0400) Number
measurement_pressure PRESSURE_MEASUREMENT (0x0403) Number:Pressure
measurement_relativehumidity RELATIVE_HUMIDITY_MEASUREMENT (0x0405) Number
measurement_temperature TEMPERATURE_MEASUREMENT (0x0402) Number:Temperature
sensor_occupancy OCCUPANCY_SENSING (0x0406) Switch
switch_dimmer LEVEL_CONTROL (0x0008) Dimmer
switch_onoff ON_OFF (0x0006) Switch
warning_device IAS_WD (0x0502) String

Updates

The binding will attempt to configure a connection with the device to receive automatic and instantaneous reports when the device status changes. Should this configuration fail, the binding will resort to using a fast polling (note that "fast" is approximately 30 seconds at this time).

Warning devices

For devices implementing the cluster IAS_WD (e.g., sirens or, in some cases, smoke detectors), the binding adds a channel of type warning_device. To make the device emit a warning (by siren and/or strobe signal) for a specified time, a command of type String must be sent to the channel, where the command encodes the configuration of the warning. Similarly, to make the device emit a squawk (by siren and/or strobe signal), a command of type String must be sent to the channel, where the command encodes the configuration of the squawk.

Examples:

Command string Effect of the command
type=warning useStrobe=true warningMode=BURGLAR sirenLevel=HIGH duration=PT30S Start a warning using both strobe signal and siren (type 'burglar alarm'), with a duration of 30 seconds.
type=warning useStrobe=false warningMode=FIRE sirenLevel=HIGH duration=PT60S Start a warning using only siren (type 'fire alarm'), with a duration of 60 seconds.
type=warning useStrobe=false warningMode=STOP sirenLevel=HIGH duration=PT30S If the device is currently emitting a warning, this stops the warning.
type=squawk useStrobe=false squawkMode=ARMED squawkLevel=HIGH Makes the device emit a 'squawk' signaling 'armed', with high volume.

The syntax for the command strings is as in the examples above, where the possible values for type, useStrobe, warningMode, squawkMode, sirenLevel, squawkLevel, and duration are as follows:

Command parameter Value range
type warning and squawk
useStrobe true and false
warningMode STOP, BURGLAR, FIRE, EMERGENCY, POLICE_PANIC, FIRE_PANIC, EMERGENCY_PANIC, any integer value (for devices supporting warning modes not specified in the ZCL)
squawkMode ARMED, DISARMED, any integer value (for devices supporting squawk modes not specified in the ZCL)
sirenLevel / squawkLevel LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, VERY_HIGH, any integer value (for devices supporting levels not specified in the ZCL)
duration A duration specified in the ISO-8601 duration format

Note that it is possible to dynamically add command descriptions for specific warning/squawk types to a warning_device channel by configuring the channel configuration property zigbee_iaswd_commandOptions, using String parameters of the form label=>commandString, where label is the label provided to UIs to render, e.g., buttons for the provided command options (as done, e.g., by PaperUI). Also note that solutions integrating the binding can add implementations of type WarningTypeCommandDescriptionProvider to provide warning/squawk types together with command descriptions for all channels of type warning_device.

Channels triggered event & rules

Some devices like the Philips Hue Dimmer can be discovered and added to openHAB through this binding but will not allow the Items to be created in PaperUI. These channels are set as Triggers and will generate output in the events.log that looks similar to this:

2019-03-08 20:51:18.609 [vent.ChannelTriggeredEvent] - zigbee:philips_rwl021:AAAAAAAA:BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB:buttonI triggered SHORT_PRESSED

To utilize these events, no new Item is required and the rule can be used to directly trigger off of this event. The Channel that should be used can be copied directly from PaperUI under the Channels-section of the Thing or can be read from the events.log See the following example on how to integrate the Channel triggered event for a Hue Dimmer:

rule "Philips Hue ButtonI"
when
    Channel 'zigbee:philips_rwl021:AAAAAAAA:BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB:buttonI' triggered SHORT_PRESSED
then
    //execute your code here
end

When things don't appear to be working

When things don't appear to be working as expected you should check the logs to try and find what is happening. Debug logging can be enabled with the following Karaf commands -:

log:set debug org.openhab.binding.zigbee
log:set debug com.zsmartsystems.zigbee
log:set info com.zsmartsystems.zigbee.dongle.ember.internal.ash

This will log data into the standard openhab.log file. There is an online log viewer available for viewing the logs.

Note that logs can only show what is happening at a high level - it can't show all data exchanges between the device and the coordinator - just what the coordinator sends to the binding. For this reason it can be difficult to debug issues where devices are not joining the network, or other low level issues need resolving. In such cases a network sniffer log is required, which requires additional hardware and software.