# JSR223 Scripting


This feature is for users who have or are willing to learn some programming skills and are comfortable working with the command line prompt of the operating system hosting openHAB.

# Overview

JSR223 (opens new window) (spec (opens new window)) is a standard scripting API for Java Virtual Machine (JVM) languages (opens new window). The JVM languages provide varying levels of support for the JSR223 API and interoperability with the Java runtime. Currently the following languages are known to work well for openHAB scripting: Apache Groovy (JVM scripting language), JavaScript/ECMA - 262 Edition 5.1, JavaScript/ECMAScript 262 Edition 11, Ruby, and Jython (opens new window) (Python 2.7 on the JVM).

Please note that JavaScript/ECMA - 262 Edition 5.1 which is referenced here is using an older engine called NashornJS. This version of JavaScript/ECMAScript is end of life and lacks many important features that have been added to the language since 2009. If you plan to use JavaScript/ECMAScript as your scripting language, it is recommended to use JavaScript/ECMAScript 262 Edition 11, also known as JS Scripting, which includes the latest ES6 language features, supports third party node libraries (please keep in mind that not all NodeJS APIs are available in GraalJS), and comes with a well documented helper library (openhab-js (opens new window)) that makes interaction with the APIs documented on this page (and more) much simpler and straight forward in plain JavaScript.

Although JSR223 scripts can be used as a general-purpose extension language for openHAB, it is most commonly used for the creation of rules, and within scripted Actions or Conditions. Currently, openHAB allows JSR223 scripting to access all packages, which may not be included in the official APIs. This provides great flexibility for the users of JSR223, but is also use at your own risk, since changes outside of the official APIs occur frequently, and are not considered to be breaking changes. New APIs are planned to be implemented in the future, which will provide standardized interfaces for interacting with openHAB through scripted automation.

# Example rules for a first impression

    # Script Locations

    Scripts should be placed in the ${OPENHAB_CONF}/automation/jsr223/ directory. This directory will vary, based on the type of openHAB installation used (opens new window). For example, Linux installations created with a package installer will use /etc/openhab/automation/jsr223/, and manual installations will use /opt/openhab/conf/automation/jsr223/.

    When openHAB starts, scripts are loaded at start level 40 by default (in no particular order). The start level for each script can be overridden by specifying a start level either in the filename (./my_script.sl50.py) or containing directory (./sl50/my_script.py). The runtime provides no explicit dependency mechanism or ordering, yet scripts are loaded one at a time so can be ordered via start level if desired. For example, with the following scripts and directory structure...

    ├── automation/jsr223
    │   ├── dir1
    │   │   ├── script_a.py
    │   │   └── script_b.py
    │   ├── script.sl38.py
    │   ├── sl30
    │   │   ├── script_x.py
    │   │   └── script_y.py
    │   └── script.py

    ... the load order will be: (sl30/script_x.py & sl30/script_y.py) at start level 30, script.sl38.py at start level 38, then (/dir1/script_a.py, /dir1/script_b.py, script.py) at start level 40. The script file watching mechanism itself is activated at start level 20, so scripts cannot be executed earlier than this.

    Note that prior to openHAB 3, script ordering was performed alphanumerically based on file path. This is no longer supported as of openHAB 3 and later versions.

    # ScriptExtension Objects (all JSR223 languages)

    To facilitate JSR223 scripting, several openHAB-related variables are automatically predefined within ScriptExtension presets. They can be loaded into the script context using scriptExtension.importPreset(String preset), e.g. scriptExtension.importPreset("RuleSimple"). The default preset is preloaded, so it does not require importing.

    # Default Preset (importPreset not required)

    Variable Description
    State org.openhab.core.types.State
    Command org.openhab.core.types.Command
    URLEncoder java.net.URLEncoder
    File java.io.File
    Files java.nio.file.Files
    Path java.nio.file.Path
    Paths java.nio.file.Paths
    IncreaseDecreaseType org.openhab.core.library.types.IncreaseDecreaseType
    DECREASE IncreaseDecreaseType enum item
    INCREASE IncreaseDecreaseType enum item
    OnOffType org.openhab.core.library.types.OnOffType
    ON OnOffType enum item
    OFF OnOffType enum item
    OpenClosedType org.openhab.core.library.types.OpenClosedType
    OPEN OpenClosedType enum item
    CLOSED OpenClosedType enum item
    StopMoveType org.openhab.core.library.types.StopMoveType
    STOP StopMoveType enum item
    MOVE StopMoveType enum item
    UpDownType org.openhab.core.library.types.UpDownType
    UP UpDownType enum item
    DOWN UpDownType enum item
    UnDefType org.openhab.core.library.types.UnDefType
    NULL UnDefType enum item
    UNDEF UnDefType enum item
    RefreshType org.openhab.core.library.types.RefreshType
    REFRESH RefreshType enum item
    NextPreviousType org.openhab.core.library.types.NextPreviousType
    NEXT NextPreviousType enum item
    PREVIOUS NextPreviousType enum item
    PlayPauseType org.openhab.core.library.types.PlayPauseType
    PLAY PlayPauseType enum item
    PAUSE PlayPauseType enum item
    RewindFastforwardType org.openhab.core.library.types.RewindFastforwardType
    REWIND RewindFastforwardType enum item
    FASTFORWARD RewindFastforwardType enum item
    QuantityType org.openhab.core.library.types.QuantityType
    StringListType org.openhab.core.library.types.StringListType
    RawType org.openhab.core.library.types.RawType
    DateTimeType org.openhab.core.library.types.DateTimeType
    DecimalType org.openhab.core.library.types.DecimalType
    HSBType org.openhab.core.library.types.HSBType
    PercentType org.openhab.core.library.types.PercentType
    PointType org.openhab.core.library.types.PointType
    StringType org.openhab.core.library.types.StringType
    SIUnits org.openhab.core.library.unit.SIUnits
    ImperialUnits org.openhab.core.library.unit.ImperialUnits
    MetricPrefix org.openhab.core.library.unit.MetricPrefix
    Units org.openhab.core.library.unit.Units
    BinaryPrefix org.openhab.core.library.unit.BinaryPrefix
    items Instance of java.util.Map<String, State>
    ir Alias for itemRegistry
    itemRegistry Instance of org.openhab.core.items.ItemRegistry
    things Instance of org.openhab.core.thing.ThingRegistry
    rules Instance of org.openhab.core.automation.RuleRegistry
    events (internal) Used to send events, post commands, etc. Details below]
    actions Instance of org.openhab.core.automation.module.script.defaultscope.ScriptThingActions (opens new window)
    scriptExtension (internal) For loading script presets.
    se Alias for scriptExtension
    # events operations
    • events.postUpdate(String, String)
    • events.postUpdate(Item, Number)
    • events.postUpdate(Item, String)
    • events.postUpdate(Item, State)
    • events.sendCommand(String, String)
    • events.sendCommand(Item, Number)
    • events.sendCommand(Item, String)
    • events.sendCommand(Item, Command)
    • events.storeStates(Item...)
    • events.restoreStates(Map<Item, State>)

    # RuleSimple Preset

    These variables and classes are loaded using:


    The primary usage of this preset is for defining rule (SimpleRule) subclasses. See language-specific documentation for examples.

    Variable Description
    ActionType org.openhab.core.automation.type.ActionType
    ConfigDescriptionParameter org.openhab.core.config.core.ConfigDescriptionParameter
    ModuleType org.openhab.core.automation.type.ModuleType
    SimpleActionHandler org.openhab.core.automation.module.script.rulesupport.shared.simple.SimpleActionHandler
    SimpleConditionHandler org.openhab.core.automation.module.script.rulesupport.shared.simple.SimpleConditionHandler
    SimpleRule Base class for Jython Rules org.openhab.core.automation.module.script.rulesupport.shared.simple.SimpleRule
    SimpleTriggerHandler org.openhab.core.automation.module.script.rulesupport.shared.simple.SimpleTriggerHandler
    TriggerType org.openhab.core.automation.type.TriggerType
    Visibility org.openhab.core.automation.Visibility enum

    # RuleSupport Preset

    These variables and classes are loaded using:

    Variable Description
    Action org.openhab.core.automation.Action
    ActionBuilder org.openhab.core.automation.ActionBuilder
    Condition org.openhab.core.automation.Condition
    ConditionBuilder org.openhab.core.automation.ConditionBuilder
    Configuration org.openhab.core.config.core.Configuration
    ModuleBuilder org.openhab.core.automation.ModuleBuilder
    Rule org.openhab.core.automation.Rule (use SimpleRule for defining rules)
    Trigger org.openhab.core.automation.Trigger
    TriggerBuilder org.openhab.core.automation.TriggerBuilder
    automationManager Instance for managing rules and other openHAB module instances. (e.g., addRule)
    ruleRegistry org.openhab.core.automation.Rule

    # RuleFactories Preset

    Note: Advanced usage

    Variable Description
    ActionHandlerFactory org.openhab.core.automation.module.script.rulesupport.shared.factories.ScriptedActionHandlerFactory
    ConditionHandlerFactory org.openhab.core.automation.module.script.rulesupport.shared.factories.ScriptedConditionHandlerFactory
    TriggerHandlerFactory org.openhab.core.automation.module.script.rulesupport.shared.factories.ScriptedTriggerHandlerFactory

    # ScriptAction Preset

    This preset can be useful for scheduling asynchronous code execution with org.openhab.core.automation.module.script.action.Timer.

    Variable Description
    scriptExecution org.openhab.core.automation.module.script.action.ScriptExecution

      # cache Preset

      The cache preset does not provide a default import and needs to be imported explicitly.

        It provides two different caches:

        • sharedCache: This cache is shared over all languages and all scripts (file-based and UI). Usage of entries is tracked and entries will be removed if the last script that ever accessed an entry is removed.
        • privateCache: This cache is private to a script engine, usually that means it is private to a script or rule, depending on the implementation of the scripting language. It is cleared when the script engine is unloaded (i.e. usually when the script is unloaded).

        In both cases values that are either a ScheduledFuture<?> or a Timer are cancelled by calling .cancel() on the object if the object is removed automatically.

        Both caches implement the org.openhab.core.automation.module.script.rulesupport.shared.ValueCache interface and therefore can be accessed by

        • Object put(String key, Object value): Put a key/value pair to the cache. Returns old value if already set, otherwise null.
        • Object remove(String key): Remove the key/value pair from the cache. Returns old value if already set, otherwise null.
        • Object get(String key): Get the value for the given key from the cache. Non-existent keys return null.
        • Object get(String key, Supplier<Object> supplier: Get the value for the given key. If no value is present, add the value that is return from the supplier.

        # TriggerType Objects (all JSR223 languages)

        The following trigger types are defined by openHAB (custom triggers can also be defined) and take the specified configuration parameters. All parameters are Strings. Read the JSR223 language specific documentation for examples of using these TriggerType objects.

        Parameter Description
        itemName The name of the Item
        Parameter Description
        cronExpression The cron expression
        Parameter Description
        time The time in "hh:mm" format
        Parameter Description
        itemName The name of the Item
        command The Command (optional)
        Parameter Description
        itemName The name of the Item
        state The State (optional)
        Parameter Description
        itemName The name of the Item
        previousState The previous State (optional)
        state The State (optional)
        Parameter Description
        groupName The name of the GroupItem
        command The Command (optional)
        Parameter Description
        groupName The name of the GroupItem
        state The State (optional)
        Parameter Description
        groupName The name of the GroupItem
        previousState The previous State (optional)
        state The State (optional)
        Parameter Description
        thingUID The thingUID
        status The ThingStatus (optional)
        Parameter Description
        thingUID The thingUID
        previousStatus The previous ThingStatus (optional)
        status The ThingStatus (optional)
        Parameter Description
        channelUID The ChannelUID of the Channel
        event The Channel trigger Event (optional)
        Parameter Description
        topic The topic to match, as a file-system style glob (*, **, ?, and {} operators).

        Example filters:
        Item events: "openhab/items/*/"
        Channel events: "openhab/channels/*/triggered"
        Thing events: "openhab/things/**"
        source The object that triggered the event, such as org.openhab.core.expire
        types ItemCommandEvent, ItemStateEvent, ItemStateChangedEvent, GroupItemStateChangedEvent, ItemAddedEvent, ItemRemovedEvent, ThingAddedEvent, ThingRemovedEvent, ThingStatusInfoChangedEvent, ThingStatusInfoEvent, ThingUpdatedEvent, etc. A non-exhaustive list can be found in the Javadocs (opens new window).
        payload Regex to match against the actual event data.
        Parameter Description
        startlevel The system StartLevel