Units Of Measurement

To express measured values in a scientific correct unit the framework supports units of measurement. By using quantified decimal values in state updates and commands, the framework is able to automatically convert values to a desired unit which may be defined by the system locale or on a per-use-basis.

QuantityType

Bindings use the QuantityType to post updates of sensor data with a quantifying unit. This way the framework and/or the user is able to convert the quantified value to other matching units:

A weather binding which reads temperature values in °C would use the QuantityType to indicate the unit as °C. The framework is then able to convert the values to either °F or Kelvin according to the configuration of the system. The default conversion the framework will use is locale based: Depended on the configured locale the framework tries to convert a QuantityType to the default unit of the matching measurement system. This is the imperial system for the United States (locale US) and Liberia (language tag "en-LR"). The metric system with SI units is used for the rest of the world. This conversion will convert the given QuantityType into a default unit for the specific dimension of the type. This is:

Dimension default unit metric default unit imperial
Length Meter (m) Inch (in)
Temperature Celsius (°C) Fahrenheit (°F)
Pressure Hectopascal (hPa) Inch of mercury (inHg)
Speed Kilometers per hour (km/h) Miles per hour (mph)
Intensity Irradiance (W/m2) Irradiance (W/m2)
Dimensionless Abstract unit one (one) Abstract unit one (one)
Angle Degree (°) Degree (°)

NumberItem linked to QuantityType Channel

In addition to the automated conversion the NumberItem linked to a Channel delivering QuantityTypes can be configured to always have state updates converted to a specific unit. The unit given in the state description is parsed and then used for conversion (if necessary). The framework assumes that the unit to parse is always the last token in the state description. If the parsing failed the locale based default conversion takes place.

Number:Temperature temperature "Outside [%.2f °F]" { channel="...:current#temperature" }

In the example the NumberItem is specified to bind to Channels which offer values from the dimension Temperature. Without the dimension information the NumberItem only will receive updates of type DecimalType without a unit and any conversion. The state description defines two decimal places for the value and the fix unit °F. In case the state description should display the unit the binding delivers or the framework calculates through locale based conversion the pattern will look like this:

"Outside [%.2f %unit%]"

The special placeholder %unit% will then be replaced by the actual unit symbol. In addition the placeholder %unit% can be placed anywhere in the state description.

Defining ChannelTypes

In order to match NumberItems and Channels and define a default state description with unit placeholder the Channel also has to provide an Item type which includes the dimension information:

<channel-type id="temperature">
    <item-type>Number:Temperature</item-type>
    <label>Temperature</label>
    <description>Current temperature</description>
    <state readOnly="true" pattern="%.1f %unit%" />
</channel-type>

The state description pattern "%.1f %unit%" describes the value format as floating point with one decimal place and also the special placeholder for the unit.

Implementing UoM

When creating QuantityType states the framework offers some useful packages and classes: The org.eclipse.smarthome.core.library.unit package contains the classes SIUnits, ImperialUnits and SmartHomeUnits which provide units unique to either of the measurement systems and common units used in both systems.

The MetricPrefix class provides prefixes like MILLI, CENTI, HECTO, etc. and the BinaryPrefix class provides prefixes like KIBI, MEBI, etc. both of which are wrappers to create derived units.

The org.eclipse.smarthome.core.library.dimension and javax.measure.quantity packages provide interfaces which are used to type the generic QuantityType and units.

List of Units

All units which are currently supported by default are listed in the tables below.

Imperial:

Type Unit Symbol
Pressure Inch of Mercury inHg
Temperature Fahrenheit °F
Speed Miles per Hour mph
Length Inch in
Length Foot ft
Length Yard yd
Length Chain ch
Length Furlong fur
Length Mile mi
Length League lea

SI:

Type Unit Symbol
Acceleration Metre per square Second m/s²
Acceleration Standard Gravity ɡₙ
AmountOfSubstance Mole mol
AmountOfSubstance Deutscher Härtegrad °dH
Angle Radian rad
Angle Degree °
Angle Minute Angle '
Angle Second Angle ''
Area Square Metre
ArealDensity Dobson Unit DU
CatalyticActivity Katal kat
DataAmount Bit bit
DataAmount Megabit Mbit
DataAmount Kilobit kbit
DataAmount Gigabit Gbit
DataAmount Terabit Tbit
DataAmount Byte B
DataAmount Octet o
DataAmount Kibioctet Kio
DataAmount Mebioctet Mio
DataAmount Gibioctet Gio
DataTransferRate Bit per Second bit/s
DataTransferRate Kilobit per Second kbit/s
DataTransferRate Megabit per Second Mbit/s
DataTransferRate Gigabit per Second Gbit/s
DataTransferRate Terabit per Second Tbit/s
Density Microgram per cubic Metre µg/m³
Density Kilogram per cubic Metre kg/m³
Dimensionless Percent %
Dimensionless Parts per Million ppm
Dimensionless Decibel dB
ElectricPotential Volt V
ElectricCapacitance Farad F
ElectricCharge Coulomb C
ElectricCharge Ampere Hour Ah
ElectricCharge Milliampere Hour mAh
ElectricConductance Siemens S
ElectricConductivity Siemens per Metre S/m
ElectricCurrent Ampere A
ElectricInductance Henry H
ElectricResistance Ohm Ω
Energy Joule J
Energy Watt Second Ws
Energy Watt Hour Wh
Energy Kilowatt Hour kWh
Energy Megawatt Hour MWh
Energy Volt-Ampere Hour VAh
Energy Volt-Ampere Reactive Hour varh
Energy Kilovar Hour kvarh
Force Newton N
Frequency Hertz Hz
Illuminance Lux lx
Intensity Irradiance W/m²
Intensity Microwatt per square Centimeter µW/cm²
Length Metre m
Length Kilometre km
LuminousFlux Lumen lm
LuminousIntensity Candela cd
MagneticFlux Weber Wb
MagneticFluxDensity Tesla T
Mass Kilogram kg
Mass Gram g
Power Watt W
Power Volt-Ampere VA
Power Volt-Ampere Reactive var
Power Kilovar kvar
Power Decibel-Milliwatts dBm
Pressure Pascal Pa
Pressure Hectopascal hPa
Pressure Millimetre of Mercury mmHg
Pressure Bar bar
Pressure Millibar mbar
Radioactivity Becquerel Bq
RadiationDoseAbsorbed Gray Gy
RadiationDoseEffective Sievert Sv
SolidAngle Steradian sr
Speed Metre per Second m/s
Speed Millimetre per Hour mm/h
Speed Kilometre per Hour km/h
Speed Knot kn
Temperature Kelvin K
Temperature Celsius °C
Time Second s
Time Minute min
Time Hour h
Time Day d
Time Week week
Time Year y
Volume Litre l
Volume Cubic Metre
VolumetricFlowRate Litre per Minute l/min
VolumetricFlowRate Cubic Metre per Second m³/s
VolumetricFlowRate Cubic Metre per Minute m³/min
VolumetricFlowRate Cubic Metre per Hour m³/h
VolumetricFlowRate Cubic Metre per Day m³/d

Metric Prefixes:

Name Symbol Factor
Yotta Y 10²⁴
Zetta Z 10²¹
Exa E 10¹⁸
Peta P 10¹⁵
Tera T 10¹²
Giga G 10⁹
Mega M 10⁶
Kilo k 10³
Hecto h 10²
Deca da 10
Deci d 10⁻¹
Centi c 10⁻²
Milli m 10⁻³
Micro µ 10⁻⁶
Nano n 10⁻⁹
Pico p 10⁻¹²
Femto f 10⁻¹⁵
Atto a 10⁻¹⁸
Zepto z 10⁻²¹
Yocto y 10⁻²⁴

Binary Prefixes:

Name Symbol Factor
Kibi Ki 2¹⁰
Mebi Mi 2²⁰
Gibi Gi 2³⁰
Tebi Ti 2⁴⁰
Pebi Pi 2⁵⁰
Exbi Ei 2⁶⁰
Zebi Zi 2⁷⁰
Yobi Yi 2⁸⁰

To use the prefixes simply add the prefix to the unit symbol - for example:

  • milliAmpere - mA
  • centiMetre - cm
  • kiloWatt - kW
  • KibiByte - KiB